Quantitative research provides a numerical description of the examined phenomenon, usually through statistical analysis, establishing causal relationships between the observed phenomena and summarizing the original data.
The quantitative approach views the social world as a rule-based and managed reality, which is taken as relatively stable, uniform and measurable, so it can be fully recognized and exactly measured. Quantitative approach provides the possibility of generalizing (generalizing) findings to the entire population.
Quantitative research that includes large enough samples clearly asks questions (solved problems) and rationally derived hypotheses.
Computer-assisted telephone interviewing
CATI (computer-assisted telephone interviewing) is a method that uses a telephone survey, which is filled out on a computer. It is a data collection process that significantly shortens the time required for the survey. The course and sequence of the questions asked to the respondent are predetermined and depend only on the answers given by the respondent to the previously asked questions. This reduces the possibility of errors that could occur when entering data collected by hand-made surveys. The telephone survey is conducted by professional staff, and the data are entered into the database immediately after receiving the answers. This method is suitable for large samples of the population, and it is also known for the higher response of respondents to participate in the research than is the case with conducting field surveys.
Also, this method allows the supervisor to control the work of the interviewers and the project itself.
Computer assisted web interviewing
CAWI (computer-assisted web interviewing) is a quantitative method of research, which is conducted with the help of computers, so that the respondent fills out an online survey designed with the help of an online survey program. Such surveys may also include photographs, audio and video recordings, links to various websites and the like.
Fast, reliable and accurate data collection is an advantage of online interviews. By filling in the questionnaire on the website, the respondent enters the data directly into the database, so no subsequent entry is required. The course and order of the questions is predetermined through the automatic! Lter options and depends on the answer given by the respondent to the previous questions.
With the growing use of the Internet, this method has gained in popularity. At the same time, the way the questionnaire was designed has a huge impact on the quality of the collected data. The form and length of the questionnaire should be borne in mind in particular; the sequence of questions asked, which should in no way be suggestive; questionnaire format and corresponding measurement scales.
Computer-assisted personal interviewing
CAPI (computer-assisted personal interviewing) is a research method in which interviewers use a computer / tablet. It is similar to the CATI method, except that, instead of telephone interviews, the interviews are conducted in person. A system containing a structured survey questionnaire is programmed for each CAPI survey. Based on the software system, the computer determines the following question during the survey based on the last answer of the respondent. This ensures complete control over the work of interviewers and eliminates the possibility of omitting questions. Also, the computer system can be programmed so that the results are loaded directly into a format that is suitable for statistical processing, which is another advantage of the CAPI method.
Compared to the PAPI (Paper and Pencil Assisted personal interviewing) methodology, CAPI provides a significantly higher degree of reliability of the obtained data. The possibility of error is minimized, data quality is improved and costs incurred in the PAPI methodology are reduced. This method is suitable for research that requires a large number of respondents.
Paper and pencil interviewing
PAPI (paper and pencil interviewing) is the most commonly used method for collecting data in social research. It is a process of personal interviewing, in which the interviewer has a printed questionnaire, reads the questions to the respondent and enters the answers.
The implementation of the PAPI method requires well-trained interviewers, who gather information about their attitudes, beliefs and opinions regarding the subject of the research through an objective approach and communication with the respondents. This method usually reduces the number of unanswered questionnaires and increases the percentage of completed interviews. The PAPI method is suitable, for example, for examining customer satisfaction with a particular service and collecting suggestions for improving the quality of products, services and the like.
Qualitative research does not rely on statistical data, but offers a deeper, qualitative or non-numerical description of the phenomenon we are researching. They are based on innumerable (descriptive data), obtained in the natural environment (observed phenomena) by extensive observation or interviewing, conversation, whose primary task is to explain the meaning or interpret the observed phenomenon.
In qualitative research, the respondent and the researcher are equal and active participants in the research process. Subjectivity is not sought to be removed or diminished, but emphasized.
In-depth interview is one of the most popular qualitative research techniques, which is a conversation between two people, with the aim of deeper knowledge of thoughts, feelings and experience related to the issues that are the subject of research. This type of interview is often unstructured, and therefore allows both parties to address additional issues and aspects of the topic analyzed. The interviewee is encouraged to provide as comprehensive and detailed answers as possible to questions that are not strictly defined in advance. Therefore, the interviewer is not required to prepare a detailed list of precisely defined questions.
This method enables the collection of a multitude of different data on opinions, perceptions or attitudes, as well as on various complex processes that accompany them. Depending on the goal of the research, an in-depth interview can be a separate research method, and can also be used as part of a multi-method research.
Focus groups are the most commonly used qualitative research technique. In a group of six to ten people, there is a discussion on a certain topic, and the participants express their opinions and ideas about it. The group is led by an experienced moderator, specially prepared for a specific project. During the discussion, questions are asked that are not strictly predetermined, but allow participants to express their opinion, beliefs or perceptions on a given topic.
This method enables the collection of more detailed data and deeper insights into the subject of research. It also allows, in addition to the answers, to consider other aspects of interaction between participants, such as non-verbal communication, and thus further improve the quality of the collected material. This method can also be a separate research technique, and can be used in combination with other methods, if the purpose and goal of the research requires it. Focus group research is suitable for examining the market, perceptions about a particular brand / product, but researching attitudes on various social issues.
Mystery Shopper is a simple and economical method of qualitative research. It is used for the purpose of individual, client-specific research. With a detailed research plan, and based on specific needs, our “mystery shopper” – and visit the service provider and simulate some of the different customer profiles. Based on different types of communication from the first contact, researchers record all elements of behavior, thus creating an objective and comprehensive picture of the service provider.